What is Authorization (AuthZ)?
Authorization answers the question: What can I do?
When you are authenticated in a system, the system now knows who you are. Once your identity is confirmed, the system associates it with specific permissions. These permissions allow you to do certain things within that system.
For example, if your teammate invites you to a Google or Notion doc, you will see a modal that asks what level of permission you would like to give them. They could get read-only access, edit access, or even share access so they can add others to the same document.
Once Google or Notion authenticates them with the email you provide, it will authorize the new user with the abilities you have assigned.